Evaluation and Application of a Portable Tailpipe Emissions Measurement Apparatus for Field Use 921647
This paper discusses the evaluation and application of a portable parked-vehicle tailpipe emissions measurement apparatus (EMA). The EMA consists of an exhaust dilution system and a portable instrument package. The EMA instantaneously dilutes and cools a sample of exhaust with compressed nitrogen or air at a known dilution ratio, thereby presenting it to instruments as it is presented to personnel in the surrounding environment. The operating principles and governing equations of the EMA are presented.
A computational method is presented to determine the engine operating and performance parameters from the exhaust CO2 concentrations along with an assumed engine overall volumetric efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption. The parameters determined are fuel/air ratio, mass flow rates of fuel, air and exhaust emissions, and engine brake torque and horsepower. These calculated engine parameters are used to characterize engine load when performing EMA in-field tailpipe sampling without a dynamometer, and to detect deteriorated engines.
Evaluations of the EMA by comparison of diesel tailpipe measurements with those made using laboratory-grade instruments showed that the EMA measurements are accurate and reproducible. The results also show that the EMA is capable of detecting emission concentration changes resulting from engine faults. Calculated engine operating and performance parameters correlate and compare well with laboratory-measured values.
The EMA in-field engine loading and tailpipe sampling procedures for parked vehicles are presented, and results of the EMA field measurements are also presented. Low coefficients of variation for repeat EMA tailpipe measurements on diesel-powered haulage vehicles in four underground mines indicate that the EMA in-field engine loading and tailpipe sampling procedures are reproducible.
An analysis of EMA tailpipe measurements for three haulage vehicles in one mine shows that the EMA can: 1) identify haulage vehicles that emit excessively high pollutant concentrations, and 2) provide data needed to evaluate and determine the efficiency and effectiveness of tailpipe emission control devices.
Finally, recommendations for a proposed commercial EMA system are presented. This commercial system would overcome many of the adverse features of the prototype EMA used in these tests.