Regulated gaseous and particulate emissions were obtained from in-use vehicles, two trucks and two buses, operated on the Transportable Heavy Duty Engine Emissions Testing Laboratory. Presented here is the data on transient emissions from a refuse truck with a Cummins LTA10-260 engine, a GMC tractor with a CAT 3176 engine and two buses with Detroit Diesel 6V-92TA engines (one with a particulate trap and the other without) when tested on different fuels. The reported study on in-use heavy duty vehicles is part of an on-going program aimed at establishing a database on the exhaust emissions from vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer under conditions that represent the ‘real-world’ situations. The paper also discusses, briefly, the entire testing laboratory. The Transportable Laboratory can be effectively used in testing programs, such as recall, deterioration and emission factors. The study provides, for the first time, a test method to acquire emissions data from in-use heavy duty vehicles tested under real operating conditions.