Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.Results to-date on diesel exhaust have indicated that use of a primary component of pulmonary surfactant as a medium for collecting and applying respirable particulate material to cells for mutagenicity testing offers a true representation of in-vivo delivery of such respired aerosols to pulmonary cells and the genetic material within. Protocols have been developed to sample and assay the diesel soot and diesel soot/mineral dust complexes which would not compromise the surface and physical properties of the particulate material. Evidence has been gathered to show that diesel soot expresses mutagenic potential as dispersions in DPL in the Ames tests as well as sister chromatid exchange activity in the animal lung fibroblast derived V79 cell line. The results are comparable to the standard solvent extraction procedure.