Fuel Effects on Emissions from an Advanced Technology Vehicle 922245
A 1991 Toyota Camry equipped with an electrically-heated catalyst (EHC) system was evaluated in duplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with three different fuels. Evaluations were conducted with the EHC in place but without any external heating, and with the EHC operated with a post-crank heating strategy. The EHC system was placed immediately upstream of an original production catalyst, which was then moved to a location 40.6 cm from the exhaust manifold. The three test fuels were: 1) the Auto/Oil industry average gasoline, RF-A; 2) a fuel meeting California's Phase II gasoline specifications; and 3) a paraffinic test fuel. Non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission rates with the EHC active were similiar with all three fuels, with absolute levels less than or equal to California's 50,000 mile Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Substantial differences, however were observed in the ozone forming potential of these fuels with the EHC active. The paraffinic fuel showed the lowest ozone forming potential, followed in order by the RF-A and the Phase II gasolines. Data are also summarized for emission rates of toxics; including benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene; with and without the EHC active.