Battery electric propulsion presents opportunities to recover vehicle kinetic energy and provide: unique integrated regenerative braking options singly and/or in combinations; to further improve vehicle energy economy by methods which are not applicable to conventional internal combustion powered vehicles. There are three basic modes to be considered in the design of regenerative braking systems for battery electric vehicles: service braking, programmable deceleration, and emergency braking. Furthermore, the type of traction motor, the driving schedule, and charging characteristics of the battery pack are essential considerations involved in designing regenerative braking systems for optimal recovery of vehicle kinetic energy and optimal battery pack life.
This paper illustrates the application of a generalized mathematical model of the regenerative braking system (47), and shows how some design choices for regenerative braking systems can be affected by the newly disclosed high performance high power level battery electric vehicles (1, 2, 3 and 4)1 and the type of driving schedules encountered. Also examined, as a function of two hypothetical driving schedules, are alternative regenerative braking control concepts for optimizing energy recovery and battery life. The scope of this review is limited to illustrating some effects of design parameters for battery electric vehicles and regenerative braking systems.