Lighting Energy Conservation and Management 929167
We will illustrate the extent by which time-proven, off-the-shelf items can be employed to develop an energy conservative interior lighting system with low overall life cycle costs. The simple provision of adequate lighting at relatively low levels of energy consumption is no longer a technical problem as it was only a few years back. The challenge facing us today is to provide quality and control of lighting with attendant reductions in power consumption. Particular techniques emphasized will include the use of highly efficient lamp types, and control of lighting with automatic dimming. The intent of all of these techniques is the reduction of energy used by, and life cycle cost attributable to interior lighting systems.
For conventional overhead lighting, 2 foot by 4 foot grid troffers, whether static, nonair handling or dynamic air handling, mounted, fluorescent lighting fixtures, surface or pendent, the following design alternatives are listed and considered;
In lieu of 40-watt fluorescent T-12 or T-8 lamps either use energy saving 34-watt rapid start (RS) fluorescent T-12 or T-8 lamps or 32-watt lamps which require a ballast change so that additional energy can be conserved in both the lamp and ballast.
Group relamp all lighting fixtures on a regularly followed schedule to obtain more illumination for the same energy and reduce maintenance costs.
Throughout the life of the facility, clean all luminaries reflective surfaces and their shielding media when group relamping lighting fixture luminaries whether lenses or louvers are used to gain greater illumination for the same energy use.
Utilize lighting fixtures with solid state electronic ballasts, energy efficient T-8 lamps and use energy efficient virgin acrylic, female conic prism K19 silver tint lenses having high visual comfort probability (VCP) qualities.
Install either branch circuit or lighting panelboard feeder circuit dimmers to reduce energy use in direct proportion to illumination reductions for all the lighting fixtures on the same circuit and/or same panelboard without having to change the ballasts. Energy saving 32-watt lamps cannot be used with this approach nor Thriftmate 33 or 50 lamps but 34 and 40 watt lamps can be used with this form of dimming system.
The following incandescent lamp and lighting fixture substitutes that can be used as alternatives are listed for consideration for porcelain enamel lampholders and high hat milligroove microbaffle downlights, ceiling drums and wall mounted cylinders, etc.;
Utilize elliptical reflector ER lamps of half the PAR of R size wattage in a high hat downlight and obtain the same illumination level.
Utilize either self ballasted circular fluorescent lamp units or twin tube fluorescent replacement units supplied with screw shell ballast lamp adapters for insertion in all porcelain enamel lampholders, drum type surface mounted overhead fixtures and for all incandescent table lamp fixtures. These self ballasted fluorescent lamps should not and do not require dimming.
Use two 7-, 13- and 18-watt twin tube fluorescent lamps with screw shell ballast/lamp adapter for all wall mounted cylinders in lieu of two 100-watt incandescent lamps. Consider using 54-watt Krypton gas filled incandescent lamps. Both lamps equal a conventional 60-watt incandescent lamp and the 7-watt fluorescent is adequate.
Consider using the enclosed and encapsulated fluorescent SL 18 unit produced by Philips in lieu of using a self ballasted circular or ballast lamp adapter twin tube fluorescent lamp unit as a substitute lamp. These lamps can be used in porcelain enamel lamp holders, table lamp fixtures and private bathroom lighting fixtures.