The Fluidyne, or liquid piston stirling engine, has many characteristics which make its use in developing nations particularly attractive. Besides being compatible with the use of lowgrade heat sources, the machine is simple to manufacture using a variety of low cost materials and is exceedingly reliable.This paper uses a summary of fluidyne experience to evaluate applications of the fluidyne to water pumping requirements in developing countries for purposes including domestic, livestock, and irrigating uses for water pumping. Possible sources of energy are evaluated in the light of availability and needs. Environmental, economic, and social benefits are also examined. Particular applications of the fluidyne to existing situations in China are evaluated in detail.