Interaction Between Heavy Vehicles and Roads 930001
This paper discusses road damage caused by heavy commercial vehicles.
Chapter 1 presents some important terminology and a brief historical review of road construction and vehicle-road interaction, from ancient times to the present day.
The main types of vehicle-generated road damage, and the methods that are used by pavement engineers to analyze them are discussed in Chapter 2. Attention is also given to the main features of the response of road surfaces to vehicle loads and mathematical models that have been developed to predict road response.
Chapter 3 reviews the effects on road damage of vehicle features which can be studied without consideration of vehicle dynamics. These include gross vehicle weight, axle and tire configurations, tire contact conditions and static load sharing in axle group suspensions.
The dynamic tire forces generated by heavy vehicles are examined in Chapter 4. The discussion includes their simulation and measurement, their principal characteristics, the effects of tires and suspension design on dynamic forces, and the potential benefits of using advanced suspensions for minimizing dynamic tire forces.
Chapter 5 discusses methods for estimating the effects of dynamic tire forces on road damage. The two main approaches are either to examine the statistics of the forces themselves; or to calculate the response of a pavement model to the forces, and to calculate the resulting wear using a material damage model.
The issues involved in assessing vehicles for ‘road friendliness’ are discussed in Chapter 6. Possible assessment methods include measuring strains in an instrumented pavement traversed by the vehicle, measuring dynamic tire forces, or measuring vehicle parameters such as the ‘natural frequency’ and ̟damping ratio’. Each of these measurements involves different assumptions and analysis methods for converting the results into some measure of road damage.
Chapter 7 includes a summary of the main conclusions of the paper and recommendations for tire and suspension design, road design and construction, and for vehicle regulations.