Rear-End Collisions - A Study of the Influence of Backrest Properties on Head-Neck Motion using a New Dummy Neck 930343
Neck injuries in rear-end collisions are usually caused by a swift extension-flexion motion of the neck and mostly occur at low impact velocities (typically less than 20 km/h). Although the injuries are classified as AIS 1, they often lead to permanent disability. The injury risk varies a great deal between different car models. Epidemiological studies show that the effectiveness of passenger-car head-restraints in rear-end collisions generally remains poor.
Rear-end collisions were simulated on a crash-sled by means of a Hybrid III dummy with a new neck (Rear Impact Dummy-neck). Seats were chosen from production car models. Differences in head-neck kinematics and kinetics between the different seats were observed at velocity changes of 5 and 12.5 km/h. Comparisons were made with an unmodified Hybrid III.
The results show that the head-neck motion is influenced by the stiffness and elasticity of the backrest as well as by the properties of the head-restraint. The elastic rebound of the backrest can aggravate the violence of the whiplash-motion and delay contact between the head and the head-restraint.
Citation: Svensson, M., Lövsund, P., Håland, Y., and Larsson, S., "Rear-End Collisions - A Study of the Influence of Backrest Properties on Head-Neck Motion using a New Dummy Neck," SAE Technical Paper 930343, 1993, https://doi.org/10.4271/930343. Download Citation
Mats Y. Svensson, Per Lövsund, Yngve Håland, Stefan Larsson
Chalmers University of Technology
International Congress & Exposition
Seat System Comfort and Safety-SP-0963, Neck Injury Biomechanics-PT-141, SAE 1993 Transactions: Journal of Passenger Cars-V102-6