Thermal Environment and Thermal Control Aspects for Mars Landers 932111
Spacecraft which are designed for Mars exploration are exposed to different severe thermal environments. The Thermal Control Design for small Mars landers which are being developed for the MARSNET mission is described. During transfer from Earth to Mars they experience large variations of the incident solar radiation, caused by solar aspect angle variations and the decreasing solar radiation intensity. The entry phase into the Martian atmosphere is characterized by a short aerothermodynamic heating, requiring a dedicated Thermal Protection System. Arrived on the Mars surface, the landers are exposed to an extreme thermal environment with large diurnal and seasonal variations of the atmospheric temperature and the incident solar radiation. The main emphasis is put on the description of the Martian thermal environment and the Thermal Control design for the Mars operation phase. Besides that the Thermal Control for the transfer flight and the Thermal Protection for the atmospheric entry are briefly described.