A three-dimensional finite element model of a human ligamentous cervical spine was developed to study the mechanics of cervical injuries related to automotive crashes.
Model development began with the generation of a single cervical motion segment. This model was subjected to a variety of loading conditions to provide a qualitative check of material properties and tissue interface conditions. Based on this motion segment model, a complete cervical model was developed including an attached rigid head.
Simulations were run for axial compression and frontal flexion. A small strain axial stiffness of 161.8
Planned future enhancements include refinement of the vertebral geometry, improvement of the material definition for