An investigation into the application of electronically controlled solenoid activated high pressure in-cylinder gasoline injection systems has been carried out in both conventional and novel four-valve four-stroke pent-roof chamber single-cylinder engines. Air motion requirements were studied and their effects on port design and layout were assessed. Alternative injector types, locations and spray characteristics were investigated. Transient and steady-state comparisons of the engines were made under both normal and cold running conditions. The outlook for the use of in-cylinder injection technology compatible with ULEV emissions requirements is discussed in the light of the results obtained.