Automating the inspection of the piston combustion chamber volume is difficult and prevents establishing an unmanned machining process of the piston in the future. So, we developed an inspection technique which uses a Range Finder, non-contact visual sensor, and calculate the chamber volume by integrating 3D position data. We applied this real-time measurement technique which enables 100 % inspection to our production lines. Then, we developed the “Defect Free Production Line”, which calibrates itself by feeding back the measured volume data to the machining process. Our paper will explain this inspection technique and our “Defect Free Production Line”.