The exhaust emissions of off-road and utility engines have recently come under increasingly thorough scrutiny and are now becoming the subject of federal regulations. While the most straightforward emissions guidelines relate to steady-state engine performance, it is well known that duty cycles of many small engines have a transient content and that its significance can vary strongly from application to application. Hence, it is important to examine how measured emissions change when the transient content of a test cycle is varied, and what kinds of steady-state and transient test cycles might realistically imitate operational conditions. These questions have been addressed in an experimental study in which several small two- and four-stroke engines have been tested under steady state and transient cycles. The same tests were also carried out when these engines had been adjusted to operate at leaner air-fuel ratios, as might be required by forthcoming regulations. The results of this study reveal some appreciable differences between steady-state and transient emissions of engines, particularly at leaner air-fuel ratios.