Assembly in the aerospace industry is generally a tedious and labor intensive process. Recently, the industry has begun a significant effort to improve assembly operations by integrating efficient design, optimized fasteners, tooling consistency, and advanced manufacturing technologies. The improved assembly methodologies are key factors in significantly improving productivity and cost.For a long period, the tapered or sleeve bolt has been the standard fastening hardware for certain areas of wing box assembly and wing to center box (in some cases to fuselage with integral center box) join. Recently straight shank bolts have successfully been applied in the wing build-up and wing to wing join of a large transport aircraft. This paper will highlight the installation methodologies/processes and inspection requirements of the above mentioned fasteners and their impacts on productivity and cost.