Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase I: Initial Investigation of Oxygenate, Volatility, Distillation and Sulfur Effects 941973
This study was the first of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of gasoline fuel parameters on hydrocarbon, nonmethane hydrocarbon, nitrogen oxides, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde exhaust emissions of 1990 model year or equivalent vehicles. The fuel parameters tested in this program were oxygen concentration, Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), ninety percent evaporative distillation temperature (T90), and sulfur concentration. Sulfur concentration was found to have the greatest effect on hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Increasing oxygen concentration and RVP reduction was found to reduce hydrocarbon emission more for high-emitting than normal-emitting vehicles. Oxygenate concentration was found to have a significant effect on aldehyde emissions.