Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase II: Continued Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxygenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins and Distillation Parameters 941974
This study is the second in a series of three EPA studies to investigate the effect of fuel reformulations and modifications on exhaust emissions. Both the first and second study in this series of studies were used to support the development of EPA's complex model for the certification of reformulated gasolines. Phase I of the study tested eight fuels on forty vehicles. This study, termed Phase II, tested twelve fuels on a separate fleet of 39 light-duty vehicles. The Phase II fuel parameters studied included Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP), the 50% and 90% evaporated distillation temperatures (T50 and T90), sulfur content, aromatics content, olefin content, oxygenate type and oxygen content. Measured exhaust emissions included total hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.
Oxygen, aromatics and olefins were found to have the greatest influence on determining THC emissions while sulfur and T90 were found to have the greatest influence on NOx emissions. For benzene emissions, the aromatics and benzene content of the fuel were found to be the key parameters. For the other measured exhaust emissions, no single fuel parameter was seen to stand out as being the key parameter in determining emissions performance.
Citation: Mayotte, S., Rao, V., Lindhjem, C., and Sklar, M., "Reformulated Gasoline Effects on Exhaust Emissions: Phase II: Continued Investigation of the Effects of Fuel Oxygenate Content, Oxygenate Type, Volatility, Sulfur, Olefins and Distillation Parameters," SAE Technical Paper 941974, 1994, https://doi.org/10.4271/941974. Download Citation
Stephen C. Mayotte, Venkatesh Rao, Christian E. Lindhjem, Michael S. Sklar
US Environmental Protection Agency
International Fuels & Lubricants Meeting & Exposition
SAE 1994 Transactions: Journal of Fuels and Lubricants-V103-4