Regulated and non-regulated emissions from five current European diesel passenger cars and one light-duty diesel truck were measured to assess the environmental impact of diesel vehicles and to help determine the emission characteristics of the two types of combustion systems: indirect injection (IDI) and high speed direct injection (HSDI). The vehicle emissions were measured using the European Motor Vehicle Emissions Group (MVEG) cycle and the U.S. Federal (FTP 75) test procedures. Measured emissions included HC, CO, NOx and particulate mass (PM), C1 to C12 hydrocarbon species (here called light hydrocarbon or LHC), aldehydes, particulate composition and particle size distribution. The particulate composition measurements included soluble organic fraction (SOF), its oil and fuel sub-fractions, and the sulfate fraction. All passenger cars and the light-duty commercial vehicle tested complied with the current European Emissions Directive 91/441/EEC. Two passenger cars achieved the EEC Stage 2 levels, and one nearly met the 1994 Tier I U.S. Federal standards. The LHC accounted for between 35 to 78% of the total HC measured by the heated FID analyzer. Fuel and oil comprised between 12 and 30% of the PM emissions. The non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions and the LHC ozone reactivity from diesel cars were both about 50% less than those from gasoline cars. Of the non-regulated emissions, formaldehyde was generally below 0.009 g/km, and benzene emissions were below 0.0035 mg/km. The results were compared with European gasoline vehicles and the Current Gasoline Vehicle fleet of the U.S. Air Quality Improvement Program (AQIRP), and an assessment was made of the relative environmental impacts of gasoline and diesel vehicles.
Over the last 20 years, there has been a substantial effort to lower the exhaust emissions from both diesel and gasoline passenger vehicles. Over the same period, the percentage of diesel passenger vehicles purchased in Europe has been increasing steadily(1)*. Lower operating(2) and maintenance costs, and better durability with equivalent drive performance appear mainly responsible for the increased diesel sales. However, even though both diesel and gasoline vehicles meet the current emission standards, questions have arisen about their relative impact on the environment(3). In addition, with future requirements for lower emissions, these questions will undoubtedly continue.
The relative environmental impact of diesel and gasoline vehicles is still uncertain because there are relatively few published data on the emissions of current diesel vehicles and because the environmental impacts of the expected emissions are not clearly understood. Data on the regulated emissions for diesel passenger vehicles sold in Europe are available from the German Government:(4) starting in 1991. There are also published reports on regulated emissions from late 1980 and early 1990 diesel cars in the literature(5,6,7). Still there are few reports on the non-regulated emissions from current diesel vehicles(8,9,10).
On the other hand, there are substantial published data on the regulated emissions of current gasoline vehicles(11). In addition, there are substantial data on the non-regulated emissions of gasoline cars, especially from the U.S. Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP)(12). The AQIRP emissions data included measurements of over 150 individual hydrocarbon and aldehydic compounds which allow estimates of the amount of urban ozone formed from the exhaust and of the atmospheric toxic compound levels. Diesel vehicles were not included in AQIRP.
This paper reports on detail regulated and non-regulated emissions measurements for six 1992/93 model year diesel vehicles, including two Ford and four competitor vehicles. The emissions were measured on both the 1993 European MVEG cycle and the U. S. Federal test procedure. The U. S. AQIRP analytical methods were used for hydrocarbon and aldehydic speciation. The report discusses the regulated emissions from the six diesel vehicles compared to emissions standards, their contribution to urban ozone formation, toxic levels and global warming. It also compares the exhaust emissions of current diesel and gasoline vehicles to help clarify their relative environmental impact.