Human memory is the fundamental process that accounts for differences between expert and novice pilot thinking capabilities. Sensing, organizing and using information requires the resources of short term and long term memory systems. Both types of memory are critically impacted by the quantity and structure of the available information. Since a pilot's stored information includes aeronautical knowledge (facts), procedural knowledge (ATC, aircraft and systems), training, attitudes, emotions and general skills, as well as experience, it is reasonable to expect that at least some portion of the expert thinking capabilities can be learned without relying solely on knowledge gained through actual flight experience. One goal of this paper is to identify the expert capabilities that could be learned in a training environment.