1994-11-01

Simulation of the Hybrid III Dummy Response to Impact by Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis 942227

The Hybrid III dummy is an anthropomorphic (humanlike) test device, generally used in crashworthiness testing to assess the extent of occupant protection provided by the vehicle structure and its restraint systems in the event of vehicle crash. Lumped-parameter analytical models are commonly used to simulate the dummy response. These models, by virtue of their limited number of degrees of freedom, can neither represent accurate three-dimensional dummy geometry nor detailed structural deformations. In an effort to improve the state-of-the-art in analytical dummy simulations, a set of finite element models of the Hybrid III dummy segments - head, neck, thorax, spine, pelvis, knee, upper extremities and lower extremities - were developed. The component models replicated the hardware geometry as closely as possible. Appropriate elastic material models were selected for the dummy “skeleton”, with the exterior “soft tissues” represented by viscoelastic materials. The impact response of each individual component was determined by explicit integration finite element analysis.Subsequently, a whole dummy model was assembled from the various segments with appropriate joint characteristics prescribed to allow for dummy articulation. Finally, the thoracic impact force-deformation response was calculated from a ballistic impactor with a mass of 23.4 kg, launched from 2 initial velocities of 6.71 m/s and 4.3 m/s, respectively. The predicted response was compared with standard dummy and human cadavers experimental data. In all calculations, the model response compared favorably with experimental data, and provided a reasonable level of confidence of the model biofidelity.

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