1995-02-01

Mechanism of Combustion Chamber Deposit Interference and Effects of Gasoline Additives on CCD Formation 950741

Recently, an audible clattering noise has been noticed in some vehicles during cold engine starts, mainly in the U.S. The clattering is referred to by various names, such as “carbon knock,” “carbon rap,” “mechanical knock” and “combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI).” CCDI is believed to be caused by the deposit formation in the combustion chamber. In the research effort described here, CCDI was successfully reproduced in a 2.5-liter multipoint injection engine with a polyolefin amine gasoline additive. It was determined that the CCDI was caused by mechanical contact between the piston top and the cylinder head deposits. The vibration due to CCDI originated mainly at the thrust side of the piston right after top-dead-center on compression stroke and was characterized by a high frequency response.
Combustion chamber deposit (CCD) formation depends on many factors, including gasoline additives. It was confirmed that there is a close relationship between the ability of gasoline additives to decompose and their effect on CCD. Various analytical techniques were also utilized to characterize CCD.

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