This paper will show how Constraint Management can lead to rapid improvements in productivity without much investment, and without much change in people or processes involved. Constraint Management incorporates two critical factors that are missing from traditional approaches to productivity improvement. This paper will clearly show why a focus on throughput is important and why the effects of constraints must be taken into account, since the system's constraint holds the key to improving the real productivity of the system as a whole. It will also show how performance measurements must be changed to foster the required behavior by people involved in any improvement program. If this is not done, only conflicting, piecemeal, and temporary improvements are likely, rather than permanent overall improvement.