The Recent ESA Activity in Human Requirements Investigations 951511
With the aim of building up an European expertise in manned spaceflights, ESA, with the assistance of the European scientific community, has carried out a large amount of studies and several experimental campaigns involving multinational crew in conditions of isolation and confinement or in long duration BedRest.
The first experimental campaign, called ISEMSI-90, was performed in 1990 at the Hyperbaric Complex of NUTEC in Norway and involved a crew of 6 men during 28 days; the second one, called EXEMSI-92, was performed in 1992 at the Hyperbaric Complex of DLR in Germany and involved a crew of 4 (3 men and 1 woman) during 60 days.
The third campaign, called HUBES, has been performed in 1994 at the Simulator of the Mir space station located at IBMP in Russia, and involved a crew of 3 men during 135 days. For this campaign the mission duration and the crew number, as well as many others organizational and operational aspects, were modelled after the EuroMir-95 mission that ESA is planning for 1995. This modelling will allow a very interesting correlation of the scientific results in the two runs, so as to evaluate the effects of the additional stress induced by microgravity with respect to isolation and confinement.
The campaigns on isolation and confinement are more centered on investigations of psycho-physiological nature, as the effects of team composition, cultural differences, personality factors and activation patterns in the understanding of both the individual performance and the team behaviour, as well as their evolution during the isolation.
The long duration BedRest campaign, jointly organized by ESA and CNES, has been performed in 1994 at the MEDES rented Hospital facilities in France and involved a crew of 8 men during 42 days. This campaign is more centered on investigations of the physiological degradations induced by the microgravity on human body and its performance.