Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/Variable Fuel Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program 952508
Exhaust and evaporative emissions from three flexible/variable fuel vehicles (FFV/VFV) were measured as the vehicles operated on E85 fuel (a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or on gasoline. One vehicle was a production vehicle designed for ethanol fuels and sold in 1992-93 and the other two vehicles were prototypes which were recalibrated 1992 model year methanol FFV's. The gasolines tested were Industry Average Fuel A and a reformulated gasoline Fuel C2 that met California 1996 regulatory requirements. The gasoline component of Fuel E85 was based on the reformulated gasoline.
The major findings from this three-vehicle program were that E85 reduced NOx 49% compared to Fuel A and 37% compared to Fuel C2, but increased total toxics 108% (5 mg/mi) and 255% (20 mg/mi), respectively, primarily by increasing acetaldehyde. The NOx effect was significant for both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Effects on OMHCE, CO, and reactivity-weighted exhaust emissions were not significant, nor were the effects on hot-soak evaporative emissions and reactivity.
Citation: Benson, J., Koehl, W., Burns, V., Hochhauser, A. et al., "Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/Variable Fuel Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program," SAE Technical Paper 952508, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952508. Download Citation
Jack D. Benson, William J. Koehl, Vaughn R. Burns, Albert M. Hochhauser, Jay C. Knepper, William R. Leppard, Louis J. Painter, Larry A. Rapp, Robert M. Reuter, Brian Rippon, James A. Rutherford
GM R&D Center, Mobil Research and Development Corp., Chrysler Motors Corp., Exxon Research & Engineering, Amoco Oil R&D, Statistics PLUS, ARCO Products Co., Texaco, Inc., Ford Motor Co., Chevron Research & Technology
1995 SAE International Fall Fuels and Lubricants Meeting and Exhibition
Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - Volume Iii-SP-1117, SAE 1995 Transactions: Journal of Fuels and Lubricants-V104-4