Biofidelity and Injury Assessment in Eurosid I and Biosid 952731
Side impact pendulum tests were conducted on Eurosid I and Biosid to assess the biofidelity of the thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and determine injury tolerance levels. Each body region was impacted at 4.5, 6.7, and 9.4 m/s using test conditions which duplicate cadaver impacts with a 15 cm flat-circular 23.4 kg rigid mass. The cadaver database establishes human response and injury risk assessment in side impact.
Both dummies showed better biofidelity when compared to the lowest-speed cadaver response corridor. At higher speeds, peak force was substantially higher. The average peak contact force was 1.56 times greater in Biosid and 2.19 times greater in Eurosid 1 than the average cadaver response. The Eurosid I abdomen had the most dissimilar response and lacks biofidelity. Overall, Biosid has better biofidelity than Eurosid I with an average 21% lower peak load and a closer match to the duration of cadaver impact responses for the three body regions.
There was a significant correlation between cadaver and dummy responses in similar tests; so, within the limitations discussed, injury risk can be assessed in the dummies. Eurosid I chest deflection was not sufficient to prevent bottoming in high-speed tests. However, peak VC occurs before rib bottoming and enables chest injury assessment for all of the pendulum impacts.
Based on a 50% risk of AIS 3+ chest injury in a 45 year old cadaver, Eurosid I tolerances are D = 52 mm and VC = 1.17 m/s. For pelvic fracture, the tolerances are F pubic 7.1 kN and GS3-Y = 100 g. Based on a 25% risk of AIS 4+ chest injury, Biosid tolerances are D = 64 mm and VC = 1.37 m/s. For pelvic fracture, Fpubic = 3.6 kN and GS3-Y = 100 g. The research establishes a technical basis for injury tolerance levels in Eurosid I and Biosid.