The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e. Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria.As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self- made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organisations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels.The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.