An important part of ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems, formerly IVHS) is the development of collision avoidance systems. These systems continuously sense the dynamic state of the vehicle and the roadway situation, and they assess the potential for a collision. When the system determines that an emergency situation might be developing, it warns the driver to take evasive action. Such countermeasure systems must be subjected to rigorous testing to ensure reasonable performance in all foreseeable circumstances and effectiveness in reducing the incidence of collisions. The efficiency and safety of testing can be greatly enhanced by using a dynamic simulation of a vehicle in near-collision situations and “equipping” the vehicle with a proposed collision avoidance system. This paper discusses the development and application of a time-domain simulation code based on a dynamic model of the driver/vehicle/counter-measure system. Parameter studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of candidate countermeasure systems. The results of the parameter studies indicated that vehicle-based countermeasure systems are viable schemes for reducing the number of run-off-road accidents, with greater effectiveness than shoulder rumble strips.