This paper describes the use of advanced three-way catalysts to meet future European and California low emissions legislation. Firstly, it describes the performance of these catalysts tested using the European Stage II test cycle and contrasts their emissions performance over the proposed European Stage III test. The future legislation requires fast catalyst light-off for the low emissions standards to be achieved, therefore the performance of close-coupled catalysts was investigated. The close-coupled catalyst systems gave very low emissions. Space constraints often preclude the use of large volume close-coupled catalysts, and the combination of a small starter catalyst with an underfloor catalyst was tested. This gave performance levels better than the close-coupled configuration. The effect of reducing the underfloor catalyst volume is also described. The work was carried out on a 1.2 litre European Vehicle, the conclusions were verified on a 1.6 litre European vehicle. A close-coupled plus underfloor catalyst configuration was used on a 1.9 litre TLEV vehicle to meet ULEV emissions levels over the FTP75 test cycle. A comparison of the performance of different catalyst types over the US06 test is also outlined.