Braking deceleration values in units of gravity on ice surfaces have typically applied to the locked and sliding wheel with a representative friction coefficient of 0.10 ascribed. Three years of testing winter roads for traction and braking capacities and controlled tests on an ice arena show that large percentage variations exist in friction values. The term ‘ice surface’ and its attributes is not well defined in the literature.
Tests were run using different tires, at different temperatures, with and without ABS on smooth and rough ice surfaces and tabulated to show the differences in braking deceleration. The locked wheel values were compared with those values normally used by accident reconstructionists and indicate that care must be taken in selecting a representative value.