Development of a Time and Space Resolved Sampling Probe Diagnostic for Engine Exhaust Hydrocarbons 961002
In order to understand how unburned hydrocarbons emerge from SI engines and, in particular, how non-fuel hydrocarbons are formed and oxidized, a new gas sampling technique has been developed. A sampling unit, based on a combination of techniques used in the Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) and wall-mounted sampling valves, was designed and built to capture a sample of exhaust gas during a specific period of the exhaust process and from a specific location within the exhaust port. The sampling unit consists of a transfer tube with one end in the exhaust port and the other connected to a three-way valve that leads, on one side, to a FFID and, on the other, to a vacuum chamber with a high-speed solenoid valve. Exhaust gas, drawn by the pressure drop into the vacuum chamber, impinges on the face of the solenoid valve and flows radially outward. Once per cycle during a specified crank angle interval, the solenoid valve opens and traps exhaust gas in a storage unit, from which gas chromatography (GC) measurements are made. The port end of the transfer tube can be moved to different locations longitudinally or radially, thus allowing spatial resolution and capturing any concentration differences between port walls and the center of the flow stream. Further, the solenoid valve's opening and closing times can be adjusted to allow sampling over a window as small as 0.6 ms during any portion of the cycle, allowing resolution of a crank angle interval as small as 15°CA. Cycle averaged total HC concentration measured by the FFID and that measured by the sampling unit are in good agreement, while the sampling unit goes one step further than the FFID by providing species concentrations. Comparison with previous measurements using wall-mounted sampling valves suggests that this sampling unit is fully capable of providing species concentration information as a function of air/fuel ratio, load, and engine speed at specific crank angles.