Challenges of I/M - The California Hybrid Program, A Model? 961034
Technician training must change to conform with changing I/M (Inspection/Maintenance) programs. Instead of a single federal standard I/M, individual state programs now vary widely. IM240, originally mandated in 22 states for Enhanced areas, lost favor:
owners of established independent test & repair shops objected to the high cost of proposed test equipment
vehicle owners objected to the Inconvenience and cost and the possibility of line ups at centralized test-only facilities
California negotiated a major hybrid I/M program which combined decentralized and decentralized test variations.
USEPA relaxation from the strict federal requirements of IM240 has produced several different state emissions I/M programs. Some states test in loaded-mode using simpler dynamometers than IM240, such as ASM (Acceleration Simulation Mode). Many states continue testing without load, thus limiting testing to HC and CO. Some are using (and many are testing) remote roadside sensing. The remaining IM240 programs are limited to metropolitan areas in 8 states.
Several states are still deciding, and a few have canceled I/M programs.