The Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functioned successfully on 76 Shuttle missions to date. The ECLSS consists of six subsystems which provide both a habitable environment for the crew and active vehicle thermal control. The Orbiter ECLSS design is reviewed in this paper and the operational flight experience is summarized. Significant flight problems are described, along with the design or procedural changes implemented to resolve the problems. The design and flight experience is summarized for recent enhancements to the ECLSS to meet extended duration missions and to accommodate visits to the Mir Space Station and to the International Space Station.