A Particle Numerical Model for Wall Film Dynamics in Port-Injected Engines 961961
To help predict hydrocarbon emissions during cold-start conditions we are developing a numerical model for the dynamics and vaporization of the liquid wall films formed in port-injected spark-ignition engines and incorporating this model in the KIVA-3 code for complex geometries. This paper summarizes the current status of our project and presents illustrative example calculations.
The dynamics of the wall film is influenced by interactions with the impinging spray, the wall, and the gas flow near the wall. The spray influences the film through mass, tangential momentum, and energy addition. The wall affects the film through the no-slip boundary condition and heat transfer. The gas alters film dynamics through tangential stresses and heat and mass transfer in the gas boundary layers above the films. New wall functions are given to predict transport in the boundary layers above the vaporizing films. It is assumed the films are sufficiently thin that film flow is laminar and that liquid inertial forces are negligible. Because liquid Prandtl numbers are typically about ten, unsteady heating of the film should be important and is accounted for by the model. The thin film approximation breaks down near sharp corners, where an inertial separation criterion is used. A limitation of the current model is its neglect of splashing caused by the impinging spray, and this will be removed in future work.
A particle numerical method is used for the wall film. This has the advantages of compatibility with the KIVA-3 spray model and of very accurate calculation of convective transport of the film. Its disadvantage is the need to track particles on curved surfaces, and we describe how this is accomplished.
We have incorporated the wall film model into KIVA-3, and the resulting combined model can be used to simulate the coupled port and cylinder flows in modern spark-ignition engines. We give examples by comparing computed fuel distributions with closed-and open-valve injection during the intake and compression strokes of a generic two-valve engine.