An experimental programme has been carried out to quantify the influence of Combustion Chamber Deposit (CCD) removal on vehicle acceleration performance, fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions in several modern European car models. Vehicles were performance and emissions tested dirty', following accumulation of 16,000 kilometres (10,000 miles) with a light duty cycle, then ‘clean’, following removal of CCDs. This scheme was repeated for one model using a heavy duty driving cycle. Additional tests were carried out on three vehicle models equipped with knock-sensors for which ignition timing was monitored. CCDs reduced fuel consumption relative to the clean engine, in amounts dependent on vehicle model. CCDs had only small, detrimental effects on acceleration performance and power. They generally (but not always) increased NOx emissions and had variable and usually small effects on HC and CO emissions. Under fairly extreme, knock-critical conditions, vehicles with knock-sensors can show neutral or slightly increased fuel consumption with CCDs present, due to ignition timing retard.