Studies were performed with three commonly used additive metals, cerium copper, and iron, with a conventional and a low sulfur fuel in order to investigate fuel additive effects on engine particulate emissions before a particulate filter. Measurements were made on a 4 cylinder direct injection diesel engine and included total particulate mass, soluble organic fraction for both fuels, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions for the low sulfur fuel.
The cerium based additive reduced the emissions with both fuels, with the largest effect being on the non-SOF fraction. With the other additives and the high sulfur fuel, non-SOF emissions were increased, increasing total particulate emissions. Copper was found to reduce the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and cerium was found to have the least effect. The use of an SiC wall flow filter reduced particulate and polynuclear aromatic emissions by over 90%.