Formulas for Estimating Vehicle Critical Speed From Yaw Marks - A Review 971147
This paper provides an exposition of the basic and some refined inertial critical speed estimation formulas. A literature review of existing inertial formulas for estimating critical cornering speed were identified for the ultimate purpose of developing a useful, compact, and more accurate speed estimation formula. Background information is presented covering the general definitions and utility of critical speed formulas. First, as a point of reference, the basic critical speed formulas are derived. Included is a list of the key assumptions on which the basic formulas are based. It is shown that the basic formulas are founded on the fundamental principles of physics and engineering mechanics; namely, Newton's Second Law and centrifugal force. Then refined formulas are presented which account for the effects of many important kinematic and dynamic factors ignored in the basic formulas such as: road grade, vehicle weight distribution, vehicle side-slip angle, axle and tire slip angles, superelevation, lateral and longitudinal drag factors, wheelbase, front steering angle, cornering stiffnesses, lateral load shift, friction dependency on load, aerodynamic forces, and anti-lock brake effectiveness.