The compositions of hydrocarbons in diesel fuel, exhaust gas and particulates were analyzed and the relationships among them were determined. It was found that the compositions of the hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas were almost the same as that of the fuel, and that the hydrocarbons in the particulates corresponded to their heavy fractions. When the engine condition was fixed, both the soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble fraction ( ISF) showed positive correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, where HC denotes the hydrocarbon emission and R310 denotes the backend fraction, as measured by the fraction of fuel boiling above 310°C. On the other hand, when the engine condition was varied, ISF had negative correlation coefficients versus HC×R310, while SOF showed positive correlation coefficients. R310 × (C/H)310, the indicator for estimating the particulate emission previously proposed, where (C/H)310 denotes the C/H ratio of the backend fraction, was improved so that it can be used for estimating particulate emissions under various engine conditions.