Design, Manufacturing and Operating Experience with an Electric Vehicle: Cold Climate Experience 971626
This paper documents the winter and summer testing of a Nissan truck that has been converted to electric drive and specifically designed for cold and damp winter operation. The Nissan pickup truck was driven every day as a commuter vehicle from November 7995 to present time, having logged 7000Km to date. Extensive data and experience provide valuable insights into the design optimization for cold weather performance. Design features to be considered include thermal management of batteries, high grade synthetic lubricants, and low rolling resistance tires. We conclude that an electric vehicle may be used as a personal transportation vehicle; albeit having I l l 0th of the energy in the ‘fuel tank’, EV's can be designed and built to be satisfactorily operated in cold climate conditions.