This paper discusses the application of human factors (HF) principles and technologies to airplane maintenance. First, a sociotechnical model is presented that describes the influences that the immediate environment, supervision, and the organization have on the maintenance technician as they perform their job. Then the potential applications of HF is discussed for these three areas of influence. Finally, specific manufacturer, regulatory, and airline responsibilities regarding application of HF principles and technologies is presented. Boeing applications of HF to aircraft maintenance are highlighted, as well as on-going HF applications that are being developed by regulatory and industry groups.