Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine 972887
A dynamometer-mounted four-cylinder Saturn engine was used to accumulate combustion chamber deposits (CCD), using an additized fuel. During each deposit accumulation test, the HC emissions were continuously measured. The deposit thickness at the center of the piston was measured at the beginning of each day. After the 50 and 35-hour tests, HC emissions were measured with isooctane, benzene, toluene, and xylene, with the deposited engine, and again after the deposits had been cleaned from the engine.
The HC emissions showed a rapid rise in the first 10 to 15 hours and stabilization after about 25 hours of deposit accumulation. The HC increase due to CCD accumulation accounted for 10 to 20% of the total engine-out HC emissions from the deposit build-up fuel and 10 to 30% from benzene, isooctane, toluene, and xylene, making CCDs a significant HC emissions source from this engine. The HC emissions stabilized long before the deposit thickness.
The deposit pore size distribution was determined using mercury porosimetry and optical microscope examination. It was determined that the deposit pores acting as crevices similar to piston top and cylinder head crevices, was the major mechanism for fuel storage. In addition, the contribution of piston top deposits to the total HC emissions was much less than that of the cylinder head deposits.