Injection Orifice Shape: Effects on Combustion and Emission Formation in Diesel Engines 972964
A series of experimental studies of diesel spray combustion was carried out using non-circular and back-step orifices. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder engine and in a constant volume combustion chamber. In the engine tests, elliptic orifices with an aspect ratio of approximately 2:1 were compared with circular orifices. The elliptic orifices had sharp inlets and the circular orifices had rounded inlets. Elliptic orifices aligned with either the minor axis or the major axis in the direction of the nozzle tip were tested. The orifice shapes had minor effects on the heat release, ignition delay, and emissions of smoke, CO and HC. However, substantial differences were observed for emissions of NOx: for the vertical elliptic orifices, emissions up to 37.6 percent lower than with circular orifices were observed. In the combustion bomb tests, rectangular and back-step orifices were compared with circular orifices, all with sharp inlets. Ignition delay and heat release rates were measured. The differences in combustion characteristics were evaluated and were shown to be negligible.