The active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations plays an important role in regard to traffic safety in general. For improving the active safety of tractor / trailer-combinations, it is necessary to investigate the interactions between the towing vehicle and the trailer during braking maneuvers.
This paper describes the ECE-regulations for the braking force distributions of tractor/full trailer- and tractor / semitrailer-combinations. The influence of different layouts of the braking systems within these regulations on the coupling forces between tractor and trailer and the driving performance of the units during braking is investigated. The dynamical behaviour of a tractor/full-trailer-combination and a tractor / semitrailer-combination are both discussed with the aid of simulations of the ISO-standard testing procedures “Braking in a turn” and “Braking straight ahead”.
Additionally, the paper describes electronic systems for commercial vehicles, which are designed to enhance the driving and braking stability of tractor / trailer-combinations.