Emission and Efficiency Benefits of Emulsified Fuels to Internal Combustion Engines 978474
Water emulsified hydrocarbon fuels substantially reduce pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines. Water emulsified gasoline, diesel, and naphtha mixtures, containing from 25 to 55% water, or more, have been successfully combusted in internal combustion engines. Because of the emulsified fuels lower energy content, a larger quantity of the emulsified fuel than of the equivalent base hydrocarbon fuel must be injected to obtain the same power output. However, based upon energy content, the emulsified fuel achieves higher thermal efficiency than the base hydrocarbon fuel. The emulsified fuel contains additives to: 1. prevent corrosion of fuel system components, 2. to increase fuel lubricity and thus prevent premature wear of fuel pumps, fuel injectors, and other engine parts, 3. keep the emulsion stable at high temperatures encountered in diesel engines, 4. prevent foaming of the fuel during use, and 5. for mobile diesel engines, increase the cetane number of the emulsified fuel. Engine oil change intervals remain the same as for the base hydrocarbon since the oil does not become contaminated with water or other substances.
Rudolf W. Gunnerman, Robert L. Russell
A-55 Limited Partnership
Small Engine Technology Conference & Exposition