The purpose of this study is to examine the cause of combustion fluctuation in a partially loaded two-stroke engine with respect to the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the cylinder. HC concentration in the cylinder, exhaust gas velocity and pressure were simultaneously measured in order to determine the influence of HC concentration on combustion fluctuation. A correlation between cyclic variation in HC concentration in the cylinder and IMEP was confirmed. The way in which the HC concentration influenced the combustion states in the next cycle made clear. A decrease of HC concentration cause the delay of early flame development and combustion, the decrease of HC concentration had an great influence on the combustion states. The relationship between combustion states and HC concentration was discussed. The relative value of IMEP and HC concentration were closely related to the HC concentration in the cylinder.