In-cylinder flow characteristics in a four-stroke diesel engine were studied experimentally by instantaneous measurements of swirl and squish flow velocity distribution with particle image velocimetry (PIV). The triple-exposed PIV films were interrogated on a self-made system to get the velocity distribution. The measured velocities were analyzed by spatially high-pass and low-pass filtering techniques. Vorticity distributions were also calculated using the measured data. As results, vortex structure of the flow field was clearly visualized. Spatially averaged in-cylinder flow energy was found decaying at high rate but the less-scaled flow components at much lower rate. Clearly visualized squish and reverse squish movements around the top dead center (TDC) during the compression stroke were found strongly affecting the swirl flow field. making the in-bowl flow energy increased.