The Coordinating Research Council conducted a program to measure the effect of fuel sulfur on emissions from California Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). Twelve vehicles, two each from six production LEV models, were tested using low mileage as-received catalysts and catalysts aged to 100k by each vehicle manufacturer using “rapid-aging” procedures. There were seven test fuels: five conventional fuels with sulfur ranging from 30 to 630 ppm, and two California reformulated gasoline (RFG) with sulfur of 30 and 150 ppm. Reducing fuel sulfur produced statistically significant reductions in LEV fleet emissions of NMHC, NOx and CO. Comparing conventional fuel and California RFG at the same sulfur level: California RFG had lower NMHC and NOx emissions and higher CO emissions, but only some NMHC and NOx differences and none of the CO differences between conventional and California RFG were statistically significant.