A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Human Arm 99SC25
This work describes the development of a three-dimensional
finite element model of the human arm. Mechanical properties of the
arm were determined experimentally for use in the model
development. The arm model is capable of predicting kinematics and
potential injury when interacting with a deploying airbag. The arm
model can be easily integrated with available finite element and
rigid body dummy models.
This model includes the primary components of a human arm. It
includes all the bones of hand, ulna, radius and humerus.
Anthropometry, moment of inertia, joint torque and tissue
compressive properties were determined experimentally from human
cadaveric subjects. To calibrate the model, both free-swinging
motion and pendulum impact tests were used. The global responses of
the pendulum force, pendulum velocity and the angle of rotation
time histories of the arm were obtained and compared reasonably
well with the experimental data. The arm model performance was also
evaluated for the out-of-position occupant interacting with a side
airbag. The correlation between the model and the cadaveric test
data was reasonably good.
This model can be useful in predicting kinematics and injuries
to the arm from airbag deployment interaction. This type of model
is the first step in the process leading towards the design and
development of safe side airbags.