Browse Publications Technical Papers EPR2020001

Unsettled Issues Concerning Semi-Automated Vehicles: Safety and Human Interactions on the Road to Full Autonomy EPR2020001

Across the span of the SAE International-defined Levels of Driving Automation, human drivers occupy a diverse range of responsibilities and authority on the vehicle movement and the monitoring of the outside environment. From both a technological and a regulatory perspective, there is a gap that divides lower levels of automation (L1 through L3) and higher levels of automation (L4 and L5). For those vehicles that require the cooperation between a human driver and the autonomous technology, it is important to ascertain the safety consequences of such a design choice. It is also important to understand what the transition between automated driving and manual driving entails for the human driver, as well as for the surrounding traffic. This SAE EDGE™ Research Report investigates unsettled issues concerning what is commonly referred to as “semi-automation,” including an overview of the role of human drivers, the quantification of the “transition-to-manual” problem, the role played by L3 toward full automation, and regulatory and moral considerations surrounding the deployment of these vehicles.
NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of interest to the mobility industry. The goal of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports is to stimulate discussion and work in the hope of promoting and speeding resolution of identified issues. SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are not intended to resolve the issues they identify or close any topic to further scrutiny.


Subscribers can view annotate, and download all of SAE's content. Learn More »


Members save up to 10% off list price.
Login to see discount.
Subscription options available: Get access to the latest reports as they publish with the EDGE Research Reports Collection. For more information, please contact the SAE Sales Team:
SAE Sales Team
1-888-875-3976 (U.S. and Canada)
1-724-772-4086 (Outside the U.S.)
We also recommend:

Unsettled Legal Issues Facing Automated Vehicles


View Details


Unsettled Topics Concerning User Experience and Acceptance of Automated Vehicles


View Details


Unsettled Issues in Balancing Virtual, Closed-Course, and Public-Road Testing of Automated Driving Systems


View Details