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Technical Paper

Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to Meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets

For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

SOUND ENGINEERING FOR ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLES: Procedures to create appropriate sound for electric and hybrid vehicles

Importance of electric and hybrid vehicles steeply increased in the last few years. Especially topics like CO2 reduction and local zero emissions are forcing companies to focus on electrification. While main technical problems seem to be solvable from a technical point of view, commercial and security topics are gaining more importance. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of available batteries. As those batteries are one of the most heavy and expensive parts of these vehicles, reduction of battery size is a big topic in vehicle development. To increase a vehicle's driving range without increasing battery size some range extending backup system has to be available. Such a Range Extender should be a small system combining combustion engine and electric generator to produce the required electricity for charging the batteries whenever required.
Journal Article

Sampling of Non-Volatile Vehicle Exhaust Particles: A Simplified Guide

Recently, a particle number (PN) limit was introduced in the European light-duty vehicles legislation. The legislation requires measurement of PN, and particulate mass (PM), from the full dilution tunnel with constant volume sampling (CVS). Furthermore, PN measurements will be introduced in the next stage of the European Heavy-Duty regulation. Heavy-duty engine certification can be done either from the CVS or from a partial flow dilution system (PFDS). For research and development purposes, though, measurements are often conducted from the raw exhaust, thereby avoiding the high installation costs of CVS and PFDS. Although for legislative measurements requirements exist regarding sampling and transport of the aerosol sample, such requirements do not necessarily apply for raw exhaust measurements. Thus, measurement differences are often observed depending on where in the experimental set up sampling occurs.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper

The Role of Fuel Cells in Commercial Vehicles

Fuel Cells (FC) are promising candidates to reduce energy consumption and, hence, to improve the global climate situation due to significant gains in the process efficiencies. Whereas the development of fuel cells for passenger car applications has intensified during the last years, commercial vehicle applications have not been in the focus of developers so far. A reason for that is the limited availability of fuels such as hydrogen. Commercial vehicles are in the most cases operated with diesel fuel. AVL has developed three fuel cell applications for commercial vehicles operated with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

OBD Algorithms: Model-based Development and Calibration

The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly increased the number of system components that have to be monitored in order to avoid emissions degradation. Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of decreasing OBD thresholds, the monitoring strategy accuracy, which is tightly related with the components tolerances and the calibration quality, has to be improved. A model-based offline simulation of the monitoring strategies allows consideration of component and sensor tolerances as well as a first calibration optimization in the early development phase. AVL applied and improved a methodology that takes into account this information, which would require a big effort using testbed or vehicle measurements. In many cases a component influence analysis is possible before hardware is available for testbed measurements.
Technical Paper

HD Base Engine Development to Meet Future Emission and Power Density Challenges of a DDI™ Engine

This paper describes development challenges for Heavy-Duty (HD) on-highway Diesel Direct Injection (DDI™) engines to meet the extremely advanced US-EPA 2010 (later named US 2010) emission limits while further increasing power density in combination with competitive engine efficiency. It discusses technologies and solutions for lowest engine-out emissions in combination with most competitive fuel consumption values and excellent dynamic behavior. To achieve these challenging targets, base engine hardware requirements are described. In detail the development of EGR systems, especially the challenges of running high EGR rates over the whole engine speed range also at high load, the dynamic EGR control for transient engine operation to achieve lowest NOx emissions at the smoke limit with excellent load response is discussed. Also the effect of the turbo-machinery on power density and transient engine behavior is shown.
Technical Paper

Integrated Cavitating Injector Flow and Spray Propagation Simulation in DI Gasoline Engine

A methodology to simulate the injection process in the internal combustion (IC) engines by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented. Entire sequence of the gasoline injection processes, starting with a transient injector-flow simulation and continuing with break-up and spray propagation using AVL FIRE, is shown. In the first part, a multidimensional model for the cavitating flow in a multi-hole gasoline injector is presented, based on the two-fluid model and capable to simulate N-phase systems. Considered fluid components are liquid fuel and fuel vapor. Momentum and mass exchange between the two phases are accounted for. In the second part of the work, the link between nozzle flow and spray formation is established performing simulations including the break-up model. This calculates the initial conditions for the spray droplets, e.g., size and velocity, based on the local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), velocity and phase distribution at the nozzle orifice.
Technical Paper

Soot Particle Size Distribution~A Joint Work for Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Investigations

The intention of the presented work was to develop a new simulation tool that fits into a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) workflow and provides information about the soot particle size distribution. Additionally it was necessary to improve and use state-of-the-art measurement techniques in order to be able to gain more knowledge about the behavior of the soot particles and to validate the achieved simulation results. The work has been done as a joint research financed by the European Community under FP5.
Technical Paper

TC GDI Engines at Very High Power Density — Irregular Combustion and Thermal Risk

Gasoline direct injection and turbocharging enable the progress of clean and fuel efficient SI engines. Accessing potential efficiency benefits requires very high power density to be achieved across a broad rpm range. This imposes risks which in conventional engines are rarely met. However, at torque levels exceeding 25 bar BMEP, the thermal in-cylinder conditions together with chemical reactivity of any ignitable matter, require major efforts in combustion system development. The paper presents a methodology to identify and locate sporadic self ignition events and it demonstrates non contact surface temperature measurement techniques for in-cylinder and exhaust system components.
Technical Paper

V6-SUV Engine Sound Development

This paper describes the development and achievement of a target engine sound for a V6 SUV in consideration of the sound quality preferences of customers in the U.S. First, a simple definition for engine sound under acceleration was found using order arrangement, frequency balance, and linearity. These elements are the product of commonly used characteristics in conventional development and can be applied simply when setting component targets. The development focused on order arrangement as the most important of these elements, and sounds with and without integer orders were selected as target candidates. Next, subjective auditory evaluations were performed in the U.S. using digitally processed sounds and an evaluation panel comprising roughly 40 subjects. The target sound was determined after classifying the results of this evaluation using cluster analysis.
Journal Article

Application of the Wave Based Technique to Predict the Engine Noise Radiation Under Anechoic Conditions

As an alternative to the element based methods, recently a wave based technique (WBT) has been developed. Since it is based on the indirect Trefftz approach, exact solutions of the governing differential equation are used to approximate the dynamic field variables. This paper discusses the extensions of the WBT for the analysis of engine noise radiation problems in 3 dimensions under anechoic conditions. Furthermore, necessary extensions of shape functions, numerical integration and a methodology to create a WBT radiation models are described. The performance of the method compared to a commercial BEM solution is demonstrated with a real engine example.
Technical Paper

Sound - Design for Motorcycles Influence of Different Parameters on the Sound

Beside performance, handling and styling the sound characteristic of a motorcycle is a very important feature for the acceptance of the product by the customers and therefore the commercial success of a new product. Creating a special brand sound becomes more and more important to create a product that can be easily distinguished from competitor products and is therefore considered to be something special. On the other hand the legal limits in terms of pass - by noise allow for a very little margin for the creation of a special sound. During the product sound design phase the different perceptions of the rider wearing a helmet and pedestrians have to be considered. In passenger cars sound design has been known for a long time and the creation of a special sound for the driver inside the passenger compartment can be achieved with little influence on the exterior noise and therefore on the noise which is limited by legislation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations and Computations of Unsteady Flow Past a Real Car Using a Robust Elliptic Relaxation Closure with a Universal Wall Treatment

In the present work we investigated experimentally and computationally the unsteady flow around a BMW car model including wheels*. This simulation yields mean flow and turbulence fields, enabling the study aerodynamic coefficients (drag and lift coefficients, three-dimensional/spatial wall-pressure distribution) as well as some unsteady flow phenomena in the car wake (analysis of the vortex shedding frequency). Comparisons with experimental findings are presented. The computational approach used is based on solving the complete transient Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (TRANS) equations. Special attention is devoted to turbulence modelling and the near-wall treatment of turbulence. The flow calculations were performed using a robust, eddy-viscosity-based ζ - ƒ turbulence model in the framework of the elliptic relaxation concept and in conjunction with the universal wall treatment, combining integration up to the wall and wall functions.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Consistent Development Methodology for hybrid AWD powertrains

Highest grow or highest attention in vehicles power-train is related to AWD and hybrid concepts. Some of the targets for these technologies are conflicting, others are very similar, and sometimes it depends on the application. In a first look it is very questionable weather these technologies should be combined. But it can be shown, that the combination makes quite some sense. It is possible to get the superior performance and enhance safety combined with reasonable fuel economy by hybridizing an AWD powertrain. From simulation to testing, efficient processes and a consistent development platform is key to fulfill all the development tasks in the environment of this increased complexity. Simulation and benchmark activities are valuable in the early project phases to define the targets and create the specifications. In the virtual world the system selection is a major task. To get appropriate results software modules are incorporated in the simulation environment.