Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Characterization of the Three Phase Catalytic Wet Oxidation Process in the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly

2000-07-10
2000-01-2252
A three phase catalytic mathematical model was developed for analysis and optimization of the volatile reactor assembly (VRA) used on International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood Hougen-Watson (L-H) expression was used to describe the surface reaction rate. Small column experiments were used to determine the L-H rate parameters. The test components used in the experiments were acetic acid, acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and propionic acid. These compounds are the most prevalent ones found in the influent to the VRA reactor. The VRA model was able to predict performance of small column data and experimental data from the VRA flight experiment.
Technical Paper

A High Efficiency Magnetic Activated Sludge Reactor for Wastewater Processing

1999-07-12
1999-01-1945
Technologies for the recycling of water are a primary goal of NASA’s advanced life support programs. Biological processes have been identified as an attractive method for wastewater processing. A fundamental new bioreactor based on a traditional activated sludge process is demonstrated that treats hygiene wastewater using magnetic iron oxide particles agglomerated with microbial cells. In this bioreactor, microbes are suspended in magnetic flocs in a wastewater medium. Instead of a traditional gravity separator used in activated sludge operations, a magnetic separator removes the microbial flocs from the outlet stream. The reactor separation operates continuously, independent of gravitational influences. The reactor has been able to simultaneously remove 98% of high levels of both nitrogenous and organic carbon impurities from the wastewater as well as achieve acceptably low levels of total suspended solids.
Technical Paper

Vapor Compression Distillation Urine Processor Lessons Learned from Development and Life Testing

1999-07-12
1999-01-1954
Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) is the chosen technology for urine processing aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Development and life testing over the past several years have brought to the forefront problems and solutions for the VCD technology. Testing between 1992 and 1998 has been instrumental in developing estimates of hardware life and reliability. It has also helped improve the hardware design in ways that either correct existing problems or enhance the existing design of the hardware. The testing has increased the confidence in the VCD technology and reduced technical and programmatic risks. This paper summarizes the test results and changes that have been made to the VCD design.
Technical Paper

Automatic Thermal Control Through a LCVG for a Spacesuit

1999-07-12
1999-01-1970
Automatic thermal control (ATC) was investigated for implementation into a spacesuit to provide thermal neutrality to the astronaut through a range of activity levels. Two different control concepts were evaluated and compared for their ability to maintain subject thermal comfort. Six test subjects, who were involved in a series of three tests, walked on a treadmill following specific metabolic profiles while wearing the Mark III spacesuit in ambient environmental conditions. Results show that individual subject comfort was effectively provided by both algorithms over a broad range of metabolic activity. ATC appears to be highly effective in providing efficient, “hands-off” thermal regulation requiring minimal instrumentation. Final selection of an algorithm to be implemented in an advanced spacesuit system will require testing in dynamic thermal environments and consideration of technology for advancement in instrumentation and controller performance.
Technical Paper

PLSS Packaging Design

1999-07-12
1999-01-1994
This paper describes the efforts to date by a NASA and contractor team to accomplish a concept design of a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging scheme that offers flexibility to technology change, access for maintenance in the use environment, ability to be used in multiple modes of operation, and the hope of cost reduction. A companion paper, Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Design and Development1, gives a description of the three competing concepts for which mock ups were built.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of the Minimum Consumables PLSS

1999-07-12
1999-01-1999
A transient model of the Minimum Consumables Portable Life Support System (MPLSS) Advanced Space Suit design has been developed and implemented using MAT-LAB/Simulink. The purpose of the model is to help with sizing and evaluation of the MPLSS design and aid development of an automatic thermal comfort control strategy. The MPLSS model is described, a basic thermal comfort control strategy implemented, and the thermal characteristics of the MPLSS Advanced Space Suit are investigated.
Technical Paper

The Porous Plate Sublimator as the X-38/CRV (Crew Return Vehicle) Orbital Heat Sink

1999-07-12
1999-01-2004
A porous plate sublimator (based on an existing Lunar Module LM-209 design) is baselined as a heat rejection device for the X-38 vehicle due to its simplicity, reliability, and flight readiness. The sublimator is a passive device used for rejecting heat to the vacuum of space by sublimating water to obtain efficient heat rejection in excess of 1,000 Btu/lb of water. It is ideally suited for the X-38/CRV mission as it requires no active control, has no moving parts, has 100% water usage efficiency, and is a well-proven technology. Two sublimators have been built and tested for the X-38 program, one of which will fly on the NASA V-201 space flight demonstrator vehicle in 2001. The units satisfied all X-38 requirements with margin and have demonstrated excellent performance. Minor design changes were made to the LM-209 design for improved manufacturability and parts obsolescence.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis of Potable Water and Humidity Condensate: Phase One Final Results and Lessons Learned

1999-07-12
1999-01-2028
Twenty-nine recycled water, eight stored (ground-supplied) water, and twenty-eight humidity condensate samples were collected on board the Mir Space Station during the Phase One Program (1995-1998). These samples were analyzed to determine potability of the recycled and ground-supplied water, to support the development of water quality monitoring procedures and standards, and to assist in the development of water reclamation hardware. This paper describes and summarizes the results of these analyses and lists the lessons learned from this project. Results show that the recycled water and stored water on board Mir, in general, met NASA, Russian Space Agency (RSA), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards.
Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

1999-07-12
1999-01-2029
Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of Issues Affecting the Transition of NASA’s Standard Offgassing Test Method to an International Test Method

1999-07-12
1999-01-2054
The toxicity test method utilized by The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is being modified to create an International Standard. The method, NHB 8060.1 C, Test 7, is utilized to determine the identity and quantity of offgassed products from materials and hardware. This paper focuses on the resolution of technical issues faced during its transition from a US specific document to an International Standard. NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) have been very active in bringing ISO 14624-3 through several revisions to its current form. It is anticipated that the document could be an international standard by the end of 1999, with the full support of NASA, ESA, NASDA, and the other national programs represented in Working Group 1.
Technical Paper

Development of the ECLSS Sizing Analysis Tool and ARS Mass Balance Model Using Microsoft® Excel

1999-07-12
1999-01-2080
The development of a Microsoft® Excel-compatible Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Sizing Analysis “Tool” for conceptual design of Mars human exploration missions makes it possible for a user to choose different possible technologies in a corresponding subsystem. This tool estimates the mass, volume, and power requirements of technologies in a subsystem and the system as a whole. Furthermore, to verify that a design sized by the ECLSS Sizing Tool meets the mission requirements and integrates properly, a tabulated Integration Interface Module has been developed for quick referencing. Mass balance models that solve for component throughputs of ECLSS systems as the Water Recovery System (WRS) and Air Revitalization System (ARS) are being developed for the sizing of the subsystems. The ARS Mass Balance Model will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Removal of Low Levels of Ammonium Ion From pacecraft Recycled Water

1999-07-12
1999-01-2119
Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membranes which incorporate the ionophore nonactin have been evaluated as cation exchange membranes for ammonium ion transport in an electrolytic cell configuration. Interest exists for the development of cation selective membranes for removal of low levels (<200ppm) of ammonium ions commonly found in recycled effluent streams in such diverse applications as expected in a Space Station and commercial fisheries. Ammonium ions are generated as a decomposition product of urea and over time build up in concentration, thus rendering the water unsuitable for human consumption. Nonactin is commonly used in a PVC matrix for ion-selective electrodes.
Technical Paper

Human Engineering Operational Habitability Assessment: A Process for Advanced Life Support Ground Facility Testbeds

1999-07-12
1999-01-2187
Design and Human Engineering (HE) processes strive to ensure that the human-machine interface is designed for optimal performance throughout the system life cycle. Each component can be tested and assessed independently to assure optimal performance, but it is not until full integration that the system and the inherent interactions between the system components can be assessed as a whole. HE processes, such as defining/applying requirements for human interaction with missions/systems, are included in space flight activities, but also need to be included in ground activities and specifically, ground facility testbeds such as the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex). BIO-Plex is a self-contained living, working and crop-growth environment that may ultimately serve as a model for Mars surface habitation. The long duration nature of BIO-Plex brings the issue of habitability to the fore, making it tangible and testable.
Technical Paper

ISS TransHab: Architecture Description

1999-07-12
1999-01-2143
This paper will describe the ISS TransHab’s architectural design being proposed as a habitation module for the International Space Station. TransHab is a space inflatable habitation module that originally was designed to support a crew of six as a transit habitat (TransHab) to and from Mars. As an evolution of TransHab, it has transformed into the proposed alternative habitat module for the International Space Station (ISS). A team of architects and engineers at the Johnson Space Center has been designing and testing this concept to make it a reality.
X